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Name: Douglas Campbell
Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) with 4 Oak Leaf Clusters
Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur
Croix de Guerre with 2 Palms
Douglas Campbell
Country: United States
Rank: Lieutenant
Service: United States Air Service
Units: 94th Aero
Victories: 6
Born: 07 June 1896
Place of Birth: San Francisco, California
Died: 16 December 1990
Place of Death: Greenwich, Connecticut
Memorial: Memorial Garden of First Presbyterian Church, Greenwich, Connecticut Image
 
 
The son of astronomer William Wallace Campbell, Douglas Campell graduated from Harvard University in 1917. On 18 May 1917, he enlisted in the United States Signal Corps, Aviation Section. After training at the School of Military Aeronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology he embarked for France on 23 July 1917. He was promoted to 1st Lieutenant on 29 September 1917. After additional training in early 1918 at Issoudun and Casaux, Campbell was assigned to the 94th Aero Squadron on 1 March 1918. He and Lt. Alan Winslow shared the squadron's first official victory over an enemy aircraft on 14 April 1918. Flying the Nieuport 28, Campbell was the first United States Air Service pilot trained in the United States to score five confirmed victories. Scoring his final victory on 5 June 1918, he and James Meissner shot down a Rumpler near Nancy, but Campbell was wounded in the back by an explosive bullet and sent home to recover. Promoted to Captain, he returned to France on 8 November 1918 and served with the Army of Occupation in Germany. Returning to the United States on 1 January 1919, Campbell was discharged from the army on 24 February. On 7 June 1919 he accepted a Captain's commission in the Air Service Officers' Reserve Corps.

"The highest ranking man in the Air Service is the Ace..." Douglas Campbell in a letter home, 3 November 1917
Kansas City Star, Kansas City, Missouri, Saturday, 1 June 1918, page 2
 
Distinguished Service Cross (DSC)
The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to Douglas Campbell, First Lieutenant (Air Service), U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action on May 19, 1918. First Lieutenant Campbell attacked an enemy biplane at an altitude of 4,500 meters, east of Flirey, France. He rushed to the attack, but after shooting a few rounds his gun jammed. Undeterred by this accident he maneuvered so as to protect himself, corrected the jam in midair, and returned to the assault. After a short, violent action, the enemy plane took fire and crashed to the earth.
General Orders No. 121, W.D., 1918
 
Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) Oak Leaf Cluster
The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to Douglas Campbell, First Lieutenant (Air Service), U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action on June 5, 1918. Accompanied by another pilot, Second Lieutenant Campbell attacked two enemy battle planes at an altitude of 5,700 meters over Epley, France. After a spirited combat he was shot through the back by a machine-gun bullet, but in spite of his injury he kept on fighting until he had forced one of the enemy planes to the ground, where it was destroyed by artillery fire, and had driven the other plane back into its own territory.
General Orders No. 121, W.D., 1918
 
Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) Oak Leaf Cluster
The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to Douglas Campbell, First Lieutenant (Air Service), U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action on May 31, 1918. Second Lieutenant Campbell took the offensive against two German planes at an altitude of 2,500 meters over Lironville, France, shot down one of them, and pursued the other far behind the German lines.
General Orders No. 121, W.D., 1918
 
Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) Oak Leaf Cluster
The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to Douglas Campbell, First Lieutenant (Air Service), U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action on May 28, 1918. Second Lieutenant Campbell saw six German Albatross aeroplanes flying toward him at an altitude of 2,000 meters, near Bois Rata, France. Regardless of personal danger, he immediately attacked, and by skillful maneuvering and accurate operation of his machine gun he brought one plane down in flames and drove the other five back into their own lines.
General Orders No. 121, W.D., 1918
 
Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) Oak Leaf Cluster
The Distinguished Service Cross is presented to Douglas Campbell, First Lieutenant (Air Service), U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in action on May 27, 1918. Second Lieutenant Campbell encountered three enemy monoplanes at an altitude of 3,000 meters over Montsec, France. Despite the superior strength of the enemy, he promptly attacked, and fighting a brilliant battle, shot down one German machine, which fell in three pieces, and drove the other two well within the enemy lines.
General Orders No. 121, W.D., 1918
 
French Croix de Guerre
Remarquable pilote de chasse. Le 14 avril 1918 a abattu un avion ennemi dans nos lignes après un combat aussi rapide que brillant.
general order of the Army
 
Victories
Date Time Unit Aircraft Opponent Location
1 14 Apr 1918 0853 94th Nieuport 28 Pfalz D.III 1 Gengault, Toul
2 18 May 1918 1135 94th Nieuport 28 Rumpler C Bonzee-en-Woevre
3 19 May 1918 1135 94th Nieuport 28 Rumpler C E of Flirey
4 27 May 1918 1006 94th Nieuport 28 Pfalz D.III Montsec
5 31 May 1918 0805 94th Nieuport 28 Rumpler C Lironville
6 05 Jun 1918 1020 94th Nieuport 28 Rumpler C 2 Mailly

1 Shared with Lt Alan Winslow
2 Shared with Lt James Meissner
 
Books
American Aces of World War 1
by Norman Franks, Harry Dempsey (Illustrator) / Paperback / Osprey Publishing (September 25, 2001)
Over the Front
by Norman L. R. Franks, Frank W. Bailey / Hardcover / Grub Street the Basement (May 1992)
Let's Go Where the Action Is!
The Wartime Experiences of Douglas Campbell; Douglas Campbell / Softcover / JaaRE Pr 1984
 
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