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Old 4 June 2022, 06:33 PM   #1
R Gannon
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Pfennigs from Heaven

Example one: 11 Dec 16 - Six Nieuports from 60 Sqn RFC led by Capt ED Grenfell had the rare fortune to actually catch a German 2-seater over the British side of the lines near Arras. Capt Grenfell led his patrol, which had reached 11,000ft, down on the 2-seater which was flying at 5,000ft and in short order compelled the intruder to land inside British lines west of Arras (Alb CIII 174/16 from Ks S 3: Uffz Rucker & Ltn W Scholz both wounded and taken prisoner - capture serial G3). Among the six was New Zealander Keith Caldwell flying Nieuport 16 A184 who fired off 28 rounds in two attacks, but later wrote, ‘In my case, I had to get down quickly, somehow, because my bottom left hand wing had turned in its socket from the violent twisting about during the one sided scrap. Grenfell crashed from a low down turn while watching the Hun landing.’ Capt Grenfell, who had been flying A278, broke his leg and the Nieuport 17 was SOC.

During the WW1 air war the airmen who had the height advantage held all the aces in any aerial combat. Yet within the British record there are scores of combats where higher flying offensive patrols (OPs) initiated combats over the German side with the height advantage, yet inexplicably ended up suffering fatal losses; most often unseen by their fellow airmen and against an enemy who for the most part spun or dove away having been caught at the disadvantage. However, when one consults the game books these losses are invariably reflected by an aerial victory for German aviators; seemingly from among those who had come under attack. However if one is not taken in by German game-books, then there are hallmarks suggestive that many of those who failed to return were more likely to have been victims of wing failures when diving on their enemies.

WW1 aircraft were after all were little more than string bags and it was recognised at the time that wing failures was an issue with the nimble Nieuport scouts however it is also evident that was also a steady attrition of Sopwith Triplanes, SE5s and Sopwith Camels which were observed to break up when diving upon German machines, which must lead to the suspicion that these ‘witnessed’ misfortunes may have only reflect the top of the iceberg.

Example two: 14 Apr 17 - Lt WO Russell flying Nieup 17 A6796 was a members of a five strong 60 Sqn OP led by Capt A Binnie flying at 12,000ft which came upon two German 2-seaters at 8,000ft south of Lens and east of Douai. Capt Binnie led his flight down at 09.15. Lt Russell would later record in his Repatriated Prisoner Statement (RPS), ‘I attacked one of these machines and then discovered to my horror that I had lost my engine. After descending another 1,000ft I was attacked by two enemy scouts and I was obliged to make a zigzag descent to the ground and landed at Bois Bernard. A red scout followed me to the ground and I learned the pilot was Richthofen…’

The other potential calamity was engine failure; whilst poorly running engines and engine failures blighted all types of machines, an engine failure was a particular problematic for Allied pilots if the engine failed or failed to pick up when attempting to zoom back up after diving upon a German machine: then, as with the experience of Lt Russell, the pilot was rendered not just a lame duck, but a sitting duck amongst his foes. William Russell was one of the fortunate few who survived to tell of this ordeal, but again beggars as to just how many a fatal loss in combat owed more to an engine failure than any supposed superior air-fighting skill of the German aviators who ended up being awarded credit for an aerial victory.

What follows is a compendium of British aerial losses which invariably have matching game-book credits but which might be better categorised as ‘Pfennigs from Heaven’:

There can be no doubt that the Nieuport scout was a very welcome addition to the RFCinventry proving itself time and again in the hands of those pilots fortunate to fly them from April 1916 onwards. However it was recognised that the nimble French scout had a potentially fatal structural flaw; that when pushed beyond normal speeds, particularly in a dive, the lower wings could break off. HA Jones noting in WITA Vol III, ‘…the Nieuport, until modified on suggestions put forward by No 2 Aeroplane Depot, proved to be structurally weak in the air with the result that the pilots were cramped in manoeuvring.’(p.337) Evidently Maj Jack Scott, the CO of 60 Sqn Mar-July 17, believed the culprit to be the French manufacturers, who cut corners on their contracts allowing many small screws to weaken main spars.

60 Squadron was the first British squadron to be fully equipped with Nieuports (Aug-Oct) and the first inkling of inherent fatal flaws occurred on 30 Sep 16 when the Nieuport 16 (5172) of 2Lt CM King nose-dived straight into the ground from 700ft at Savy aerodrome during target practice.

26 Oct 16: Lt WM Carlyle from 60 Sqn on Nieuport 16 A133.

Lt WM Carlyle reflects the first Nieuport combat fatality for the British. The German game-books record a ‘Nieuport’ downed at Grevilliers which was awarded to Ltn Hans von Keudell from Jasta 1as his #3; being timed at 15.40GT(14.40BT) and accorded diesseits. Grevilliers is 3km west of Bapaume and at the time 4km from the closest British trench (le Sars). Sadly the Canadian has no known grave.

The Battle of the Somme was still grinding on upon the ground with the day’s principal fighting at ‘Stuff Redoubt’ roughly 2km south of Grandcourt, where the Germans mounted a counter-attack. It was a day of low clouds and rain but it did not deter the RFC from sending BE2s aloft to do artillery work between Puisseux and Courcelette – indeed the artillery calls from these BEs undoubtedly contributed to the defeat of the German counter-attack. Lt Carlyle was a member of a four strong OP (B Flight) led by led by Capt EL Foot (A165) which in line with Trenchard’s air-policy was to provide an air umbrella for the Corps machines. A synopsis of the Combat Reports indicates circa 14.40 the patrol was flying at 12,000ft near Bapaume when a HA was observed at about 8,000ft just north of Bapaume heading east. Lt EJ Gilchrist (A205) was of the opinion that it was a straggler from a formation of six HA. Capt Foot dived on the lone HA as did Lt Gilchrist. Describing his quarry as an ‘Albatross scout’, Capt Foot got off 15rds before suffering a stoppage and breaking off leaving the HA in a steep dive. Lt Gilchrist fired the better part of a drum of Lewis stating ‘He and three others dived straight down…’ About six minutes later Capt Foot, Lt Gilchrist and Lt R Hill (A212) then attempted to engage the other six HA though there was differing opinion as to the type; Foot & Hill recording ‘Albatross’ whilst Gilchrist thought they were LVGs. Whatever the type, the six HA had their nose down over Beugny. Lt Hill however, suffered first a stoppage then an engine failure and glided towards British lines escorted by Capt Foot, whilst Lt Gilchrist, who had not changed his drum, found himself under attack from two of the HA and had to escape by manoeuvring. Lt Hill affected a landing between Flers and High Wood, noting that his engine had not been hit.

Lt WM Carlyle failed to return – he was last seen immediately prior to the attack on the lone HA at 14.40BT (15.40GT) however he was not present just minutes later when his three fellow pilots sought to engage the formation of six HA over Beugny. As such one is left to embrace the game-book perception that, unseen by his fellow patrol members, Lt Carlyle had been attacked and picked off circa 14.40/15.40 by von Keudell. Indeed according to Ed Ferko, ‘…Ltn von Keudell caught a 60 Squadron Nieuport near Brevilliers[sic], easily shooting it down…’[Fliegertruppe 1914-1918 p.8] However it may just be, that Carlyle had followed Capt Foot and Lt Gilchrist into the attack on the lone HA (von Keudell?) and the lower left wing, or wings, of Carlyle’s Nieuport turned in the socket and broke off. One might give a thought to Lt Gilchrist’s impression of the HA and ‘three others’ diving straight down – the HA and perhaps a disintegrating Nieuport?

Lots more to follow.
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Old 5 June 2022, 09:13 AM   #2
VtwinVince
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An interesting topic no doubt. But the Luftstreitkraefte were similarly plagued with reliability issues such as wing failures (Albatros CIII, Fokker DR1) and engine unreliability. Your zeal to paint the Germans as fanatical overclaimers in once again in evidence.
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Old 5 June 2022, 08:48 PM   #3
R Gannon
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3 Nov 16 Lt JM Spencer.

3 Nov 16: Lt JM Spencer from 60 Sqn on Nieuport 16 A125 ‘B4’.

Lt Spencer had crossed the lines as a member of a five strong 60 Sqn OP. As far as can be determined, the new man had become separated from his patrol due to clouds when in the vicinity of Adinfer Wood at around 16.00BT, Spencer’s Nieuport was subsequently seen to attack 4 HA over Ayette (3km SE of Adinfer). Evidently one of the ‘HA’ was observed to fall away OOC followed moments later by the Nieuport of Lt Spencer. It was later established that he died in German hands and was buried at Moyenville just to the NE of Ayette. There are at least two photos of the crashed Nieuport A125 ‘B4’, which whilst crumpled, is still recognizable as a Nieuport and in this case it appear the lower wings were still attached. The game-books award a ‘Nieuport Einsitzer’ to Ltn Hans Imelmann from Jasta 2: timed 16.45GT at Douchy & given diesseits – with supplementary data ‘A125 Lt Spencer’. On the balance of the evidence, it would rather seem that the impetuous Lt Spencer, after causing one German pilot to evidently seek safety below, was overwhelmed by his three companions; evidently led by Ltn Imelmann. But this all beggars as to why Spencer did not zoom away? This in turn must lead to the suspicion, as was the misfortune of Lt Russell on 14 Apr 17, that Lt Spencer’s engine chocked after engaging one of the four HA down, and thereby rendering him a lame and lone duck among three enemies.

Russ
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Old 6 June 2022, 03:17 PM   #4
R Gannon
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16 Nov 16 Lt Bacon from 60 Sqn.

16 Nov 16: Lt DM Bacon from 60 Sqn on Nieuport 16 A225.

Lt Bacon was a member of a seven strong OP led by Maj RR Smith-Barry (the CO of 60 Sqn). The OP was flying at 12,000ft when at about 08.00BT a formation of 6 HA was observed flying at 10,000ft to the east of Adinfer Wood – these were described as variously scouts & LVGs however there was a second formation of 7 machines about 700ft above. Maj Smith-Barry fired a red light and dived on the lower formation followed by the rest. Lt WM Fry fired off a drum of Lewis at one scout which dived away, but was then attacked by one of two scouts which had dived down from the upper formation – these were described as being ‘Roland scouts’ (Albatros D). Willie Fry got off a drum at his attacker, which immediately made off east but he then observed a Nieuport below him going down OOC with the second ‘Roland scout’ on its tail. This was certainly the Nieuport of Lt Bacon and going by the game-books the machine on its tail would have to have been flown by Ltn von Keudell from Jasta 1; credited with a Nieuport between Serre and Beaucourt timed 09.00GT (08.00BT) awarded as his #8. Again there must be the suspicion that the engine of A225 chocked during the initial dive upon the six HA at 10,000ft thus rendering Lt Bacon a lame duck, as it is clear from the experience of Lt Fry, that whilst he too was attacked from above, his was able, due to having his engine, to round on his assailant which immediately made off. Lt Bacon has no known grave.

It was a doubly tragic day for 60 Sqn as 2Lt HE Martin was killed when his Nieuport 16 A135 crashed from 200ft when attempting to pull out of a practice dive over Savy aerodrome.
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Old 7 June 2022, 04:52 PM   #5
R Gannon
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27 Nov 16 Capt GA Parker from 60 Sqn.

27 Nov 16: Capt GA Parker DSO MC from 60 Sqn on Nieuport 17 A281.

Decorated flier Capt Parker was leading of four strong OP at 10,000ft when at about 08.30BT, and without firing a red light (attack signal), Capt Parker put his Nieuport in a dive. The other three pilots; 2Lt P Joyce, Lt VA Stookes, & 2Lt GA Giles followed their leader down onto what turned out to be 4 HA scouts flying at about 6,000ft near Bapaume. Capt Parker evidently engage one HA scout and 2Lt Joyce (A223) went for the one to its left, but this HA immediately dived away steeply towards the east whereupon 2Lt Joyce found he was under attack by two of the other HA, however these in turn were driven off by the intervention of another Nieuport. The intervening Nieuport was evidently flown by Lt Stookes (A213), who had dived on one of the HA scouts, but let it go in order to go to the aid of a Nieuport (2Lt Joyce) being attacked by two HA scouts; Lt Stookes fired off a drum of Lewis and both HA dived and went very low before making off to the east. 2Lt Giles (A201) also reported ‘…I dived on one which was on a Nieuports tail and continued firing until very close to him, he turned slightly and dived steeply, I then lost sight of him.’ Capt Parker was not seen after the fight and the three remaining Nieuports continued the patrol. Capt Parker DSO MC was posted missing: ‘Left aerodrome at 8-0 a.m. Last seen with patrol over Bapaume at about 8.40 a.m.’and has no known grave [DSO & MC for sterling service as BE2 pilot with 8 Sqn garnering the sobriquet of the ‘Policeman of Gommecourt’].

According to the game-books: Ltn Werner Voss from Jasta Boelcke was awarded credit for a ‘Nieuport DD Einsitzer’ as his #1: Miraumont timed 09.40GT and given diesseits with supplementary data ‘2242 Type 17 Capt Parker dead’. Miraumont is 8km west of Bapaume. A second ‘Nieuport’ was awarded to O.Stv Max Muller as his #5: just over the British side at Hebuterne (6km NW of Miraumont), thus accorded jenseits, and evidently timed 09.45GT. If one was to derive their impressions of aerial combats purely from the German game-book listings, as far too many do, then no doubt the image conjured up is of Albatros from Jasta Boelcke naturally out-fighting a ‘superior’ number of Nieuports and shooting down two of them, however the reality was very different with only one Nieuport being lost whilst all four of the HA had been forced to dive away leaving the sky to the remaining three Nieuports. Dissecting the data: one might hazard that Voss was the pilot of the machine which was attacked by Capt Parker, who very conceivably suffered an engine failure, allowing Voss to turn the tables and get onto his tail - and this was the scene which confronted 2Lt Giles who forced the HA to dive away, but clearly too late to save Capt Parker. One can only assume O.Stv Muller was the pilot of one of the two HA which attacked the Nieuport of 2Lt Joyce and subsequently submitted an optimistic claim.
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Old 8 June 2022, 10:24 AM   #6
piecost
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Home advantage

Whilst engine, fuel system and airframe reliability issues no doubt plagued both sides; the home ground and prevailing wind advantage favoured the Germans. It reminds me of the performance of the RAF over England during the Battle of Britain versus them carrying out fighter sweeps over France a year later.
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Old 8 June 2022, 04:20 PM   #7
R Gannon
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4 Dec 16 & 27 Dec 16

4 Dec 16: FSL AC Corbett from 8 Naval flying Nieuport N3957.

FSL Corbett was a member of an 8 Naval Sqn patrol (Pups & Nieuports), which together with four DH2s from 32 Sqn provided an escort for Martinsyde G100s from 27 Sqn which bombed Velu aerodrome. German scouts were encountered around 11.00 to the NE of Bapaume, but as would so often be the case, the German airmen did not push home attacks when confronted by Allied machines in any numbers. However FSL RA Little saw 4 HA attempt to attack one straggling G 100, but these made off once he endeavoured to engage them. Otherwise FSL Little saw one of the Sopwith Pups send a German scout down in a spinning nose dive: evidently this was the Pup of FSL FJ Goble, who sent what he thought was a ‘Halberstadt’ down seemingly OOC. F/Cdr CR Mackenzie and FSL GG Simpson, both flying Nieuports, combined to send a second HA scout down seemingly OOC. However as it transpired; FSL Corbett failed to return and it was later learned that Corbett was his killed when his Nieuport crashed just inside British lines at Flers (south of Bapaume). In this instance there are no German claims. None the less there must be the suspicion that FSL Corbett had been yet another victim of a wing failure.

27 Dec 16: A four man 60 Sqn OP dived to the aid of three DH2s from 29 Sqn which were scrapping with five Albatros scouts from Jasta Boelcke to the east of Adinfer wood. Lt GAH Pidcock flying Nieuport 16 A208 twice dived upon a red painted Albatros, which was attacking the DH2s, getting off a third of a drum in the second attack [roughly 30 rounds from a double drum], where after the red Albatros nosed dived away but then flattened out near to the ground and made off to the east – this was east of Ficheaux and timed 15.25BT(16.25GT). Pidcock’s action no doubt went in no small way into helping Sgt JTB McCudden (29 Sqn) shake off his persistent attacker (MvR). As it transpired Lt Pidcock, ‘…was forced to break off the action when his lower left wing twisted in its socket during the dive…’
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Old 9 June 2022, 07:00 PM   #8
R Gannon
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11 Jan & 6 Mar 17.

11 Jan 17: 2Lt R Hooper, a new man with 60 Sqn was killed when his Nieup 16 A187 went into a spinning nose dive during a flat turn over Savy aerodrome.

6 Mar 17: 2Lt PS Joyce from 60 Sqn on Nieuport 16 A208.

Geoffrey Pidcock’s Nieup 16 A208 was repaired and returned to 60 Sqn later being modified to take a camera. The relatively experienced 2Lt PS Joyce took A208 aloft at 09.15 on 6 Mar 17 so as to photograph the environs of Cambrai escorted by three Nieuports from C Flight (Caldwell, Weedon & Bower). On the return flight, with British lines and safety in sight, the escort peeled away so as to engage two 2-seaters seen at 12,000ft to the NE of Bapaume – they left 2Lt Joyce flying west over Bapaume at 8,000ft. No decisive results were obtained and the three escorts returned to Filescamp Farm at 11.15BT(12.15GT) only to find that 2Lt Joyce had not returned. No trace of 2Lt Joyce or A208 were on the British side so he was posted a missing. This continued to be the case post-war when all the territory previously occupied by the Germans was examined in order to find the graves of the missing. The German game-books would award a ‘Sopwith Eins’ to Obln Kummertz from Jasta 1 at Achiet le Grand timed 11.30GT(10.30BT). The location and time of the credit look credible however the identification does not gel, unless Nieuport A208 was so unrecognizable that ‘Sopwith’ served as a best guess. Pointedly no enemy machines were observed by the escort other than the 2-seaters leaving one to suspect that 2Lt Joyce had fallen prey to some other kind of happenstance, which when A208’s previous wing incident is taken into account in conjunction with the fatal outcome then a wing failure must loom as a possibility.

Kieth Caldwell went on 10 weeks sick leave immediately after this unfortunate incident.
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Old 10 June 2022, 04:21 PM   #9
R Gannon
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17 Mar 17: Lt Gilson from 1 Sqn.

17 Mar 17: 2Lt AJ Gilson from 1 Sqn flying Nieup 17 A6617.

This is one fatal Nieuport loss for which there is very good three-dimensional visibility. The loss of Lt Gilson is reflected in the German game books as a ‘Nieuport-eins’ awarded to Ltn Strahle from Jasta 18: given as north of Linselles at 11.20GT cited as diesseits as his #3. In this instance we actually have visibility supplied by Paul Strahle, ‘When we arrived over Bailluel a formation of four FEs and three Nieuports took off from that field and headed for Soully-Lille. Over Lille I pretended to attack the FE that was nearest to the front lines. I shot at a distance of 300-400m and forced him to disappear. I headed for the Nieuports and attacked one several times. After my fourth attack he disappeared for good. Then I approached another and made two attacks on him. I was quite sure I had hit him because for a little while he kept straight on vertically downward and then leaning over to one side. He finally went down with his tail ‘swinging in the back’. After I had made sure he was finished, I followed the large formation that was flying in from Polygon to Menin. The Nieuport that I had put out of action, as reported by eye-witnesses, slipped away. My second Nieuport attack was successful, it lay completely destroyed north of Linselles. The pilot, an English 2Lt was shot in the head and the plane exploded while still in the air. The engine had to be dug out of the ground.’ There is of course a photo of the pitiful wreckage of A6617, the rudder the only bit recognisable as being a Nieuport.

The Allied machines were in fact five FE2bs from 20 Sqn which actually took off from Boisdinghem A/D (40km west of Bailluel) at 08.50BT on a bombing photo-recon and their escort of three Nieuports from 1 Sqn which took off from Bailluel 0930-0934BT: 2Lt JA Slater(A6624), 2Lt CC Clark(A6672) & 2Lt AJ Gilson (A6617). The FE which disappeared early was A27; but contrary to Stahle’s impression that his long range snipping had been the cause, the engine of A27 had been damaged by Flak (FlakBttr Lille) and due to the strong westerly wind was forced to land on a German parade ground near Lomme and the crew taken POW. This did not deter an FAA 227 crew claiming and indeed being credited with the FE. The 1Sqn escort did indeed note 3 HA (Js 18) flying high above Bailluel at 09.40BT: one at 14,000ft and two higher up at 16,000ft. The 3 HA evidently shadowed the RFC formation east, where they were joined by one more to the NW of Armentieres at 09.50BT where after they were joined by 4 more (from Tournai) above Lille at 10.05BT/11.05GT. 2Lt Slater then led the other two Nieuports around so as to face the HA, but even before they were in range Slater & Clark saw 2Lt Gilson’s Nieuport going down in a spinning nose dive from which he did not regain control. The actual combat began at 10.12BT/11.12GT when four of the HA dived on the two Nieuports but then withdrew east when fire was returned. Slater & Clark then set off after the FEs but were then attacked by the other four HA, ‘…This method of attack was repeated throughout the whole of the Reconnaissance. Several HA were seen going down in spinning nose dives between COURTRAI and MENIN.’ The fighting, which mostly occurred at 11,000ft, lasted until 10.50BT/11.50GT by which time only 4 HA remained. The 20 Sqn crews, in addition to seeing one Nieuport going down OOC, confirmed one Albatros as definitely OOC, which was jointly awarded to Slater & Clark. 2Lt’s Slater & Clark landed safely back at Bailluel at 10.57 & 10.59.

It rather appears that 2Lt Gilson’s Nieuport went down in a spinning nose dive when turning to face the German scouts circa 10.05BT/11.05GT and prior to any shooting, which began at 10.12BT/11.12GT, and that Strahle, despite his optimistic claim timed 11.20GT/10.20BT, had in fact only made ineffectual attacks upon the Nieuports of 2Lt Slater & 2Lt Clark, but afterwards learned of a wrecked Nieuport and believed it to be that of the second Nieuport which he had attacked. Such is the fog of war. One might also suspect that Strahle’s claim that the ‘2Lt’ of the unfortunate Nieuport, had been hit in the head simply bellied severe head trauma caused in the catastrophic crash, and reflects a device which can be seen elsewhere in relation to claims over smashed machines which likely lacked any evidence of bullet damage. On the balance of the evidence, which included the German impression that the Nieuport had exploded in the air, it seems most likely that 2Lt Gilson had been yet another victim of a lower wing failure.
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Old 11 June 2022, 09:22 PM   #10
R Gannon
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24 Mar 17: Lt RP Baker from 19 Sqn.

24 Mar 17: Lt RP Baker from 19 Sqn on SPAD A6706.

Lt RP Baker failed to return from a morning OP: Lens-Harnes-Henin Lietard – Quiery -Bailluel, evidently in company with 2Lt FL Harding (A263) Lt AH Orlebar (A6663) and Lt JW Baker; the other Baker however dropped out due to a loss of fuel pressure when over Arras. The other three became embroiled in scattered fighting with as many as 10 HA between Lens and Douai at an altitude of between 10,000 & 11,000ft from around 10.50BT. During this scrapping, Lt Orlebar drove one ‘Halberstadt’ (sic) down (11.00BT) whilst 2Lt Harding was plagued with machine-gun stoppages. The SPAD of Lt RP Baker was evidently last seen 5 miles SE of Lens. Fortunately the Canadian survived as a POW. There is an extant photo of the downed A6706 which had force landed losing its undercarriage.

The Nachrichtenblatt Abschuss would award ‘Hispano Spad 6606’ to Obln Manfred von Richthofen, the ambitious staffelfuhrer of Jasta 11, as his #30, downed at Givenchy. MvR’s Luftkampfbericht gave the time as 11.55[GT] in which he would record: 'I was flying with several of my gentlemen when I observed an enemy squad passing our front. A side from this squad two new one-seaters which I did not know were flying. They were extremely fast and handy. I attacked one of them and ascertained that my machine was the better one. After a long fight I managed to hit adversary’s tank. The propeller stopped running. The plane had to come down. As the fight had taken place above the trenches, adversary tried to escape, but I managed to force him to land behind our lines near Givenchy. The plane turned, in a shell hole, upside down. The plane was taken by our troops.'

What appears to be played down in the popular and overly patronising wisdom of MvR is Lt RP Baker’s Released Prisoner Statement, in which he wrote, ‘Motor defect and enemy action (attacked while trying to remedy engine, wounded in right knee).’ Indeed according to Floyd Gibbons, ‘Baker later wrote to his brother from prison camp in Germany that he had been forced to land on account of his engine being useless. He was wounded in landing…’ (Red Knight p.150) Witness that brings into question the veracity of MvR’s version of events and underscores the real reason why his Albatros was the ‘better’ machine; Baker’s SPAD had been rendered a lame duck on account of engine failure.

It is also informative that Ltn Karl Allmenroder from Jasta 11 also submitted a claim for a ‘Spad’ in the vicinity of Lens, which can only realistically reflect Baker’s SPAD, however the German system would only acknowledge one victor.
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